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以时态为主线,进行写作专题训练  

2012-08-12 19:31:16|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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优秀教案节选

以时态为主线,进行写作专题训练

——诸城   管延国

初中英语教学大纲对时态的要求是:熟练运用一般现在时、一般过去时、一般将来时、现在进行时、现在完成时;初步了解过去进行时、过去将来时、过去完成时。一篇成功的英语写作,无非是用正确的时态和句式记述人物、事件。因此,正确运用时态是进行综合写作的基础。介绍笔者教学中应用的案例,以起到抛砖引玉之效果。

I.一般现在时表示经常习惯性动作或客观事实真理。

1.写人案例。表达某人的基本信息,如姓名、年龄、生日、家庭、爱好、特长等。

【写作范例】下面是你的笔友及家庭的信息,请用英语把他介绍给大家。

Name: ZhaoDan

School name:

No.1 Middle School

of Yantai

His dream:

A pop movie star

Sex:male

Age: 16

Hobbies: listen to music, swimming

Favorite subjects:

math, English, art

Number of people in his family: 3

Father: a policeman

Mother: a doctor

                                                                                            

                                                                                         

                                                                                         

                                                                                          

 Key:

ZhaoDan is my pen pal. He is a schoolboy of sixteen. He studies at No.1 Middle School of Yantai. Of all the subjects he likes math, English and art best. / His favorite subjects are math, English and art. His favorite sport is swimming. In his free time, he likes listening to music. He wants to be a pop movie star when he grows up. There are three people in his family. His father is a policeman and his mother is a doctor.

2.记事案例。记述某人一天的活动。

【写作范例】作为一名学生,你每天的生活是有规律的,请写一篇短文,记述你一天的生活,词数60-80

                                                                                            

                                                                                         

                                                                                          

                                                                                         

 Key:

 I usually get up at 6:40 in the morning on weekdays. I wash my face at 6:50. Then I have breakfast at 7:00. After that, I take my bike to school at around 7:20. It’s very early, because I don’t want to be late. I usually get to school at 7:40. Classes begin at 8:00. I have four classes in the morning and two in the afternoon. I have lunch at 12:00 at school. Classes are over at 4:00, and I get home at about 4:20. But sometimes I don’t leave school so early, because I play football there. Then I get home at 5:00. I have dinner with my family at about 6:00. In the evening I do my homework and I often watch TV with my parents. But sometimes I like to do some reading and play chess with my father. I go to bed at 9:00.

3. 规章制度。多用祈使句或一般现在时情态动词cancan’t, shouldmust等。

【写作范例】请以“Notice to the Readers”为题目,为学校图书馆制订制度。

                                                                                           

                                                                                           

                                                                                         

                                                                                           

Key

Notice to the Readers

1. Keep quite when you are in the library. /You must keep quiet when you are in the library.

2. Take good care of the library books.

3. Food and drinks should not be taken into the reading-room.

4. All beepers and mobile phones must be kept off during your reading here.

5. No smoking in the reading-room./ You can’t smoke in the reading-room

    II. 一般过去时表示发生在过去的动作或状态。主要用来发生在过去的事件。如下文:

【写作范例】上周为国庆七天假期,你是怎样活动的?请写一篇短文,记述你的国庆七天。

                                                                                            

                                                                                          

                                                                                         

                                                                                         

Key

Last week was National Day holiday. We had seven days off. On October 1st, that was Monday, I went to the museum. There I found some fantastic things. On Tuesday, I played computer games all day. It was tired and exciting. On Wednesday, my parents and I went to visit my grandparents in the countryside. We had a delicious dinner with them and had a great time there. On Thursday, I played tennis with my friends. From Friday to Sunday, my family went to Dalian to travel. We had a nice journey.

【写作范例】200959日,周六,天气晴朗,你们班的共青团员一起开展了一个有意义活动:清晨,你们骑自行车去人民公园打扫卫生,收集了废旧物品回收利用;捡拾垃圾;树立保护环境的标牌,向行人宣传保护环境的重要性。活动尽管累但大家高兴,因为你们为保护环境做出了自己的贡献。请你以日记的形式记录一天的活动。                                                                                         

                                                                                          

                                                                                         

                                                                                          

Key

 Saturday, May 8th, 2009                                  Sunny

  Today is May 8th; all the Young Pioneers had an instructive activity. We did something good for the environment.

  Early in the morning, we went to the People’s Park by bike. When we got there and came to the river bank, we began to work at once. We collected waste paper, bottles plastic bags and other things for recycling. We picked up some rubbish and put it into a dustbin. Then we put up a notice board with the word “Protect our environment”. At the same time we told the visitors about the importance of protecting the environment. We all worked for a whole day. Though we were all tired, but happy. Because all of us made a contribution to protecting the environment and made our city more beautiful.

  III. 一般将来时表示发生在将来的动作或事先安排好的计划或打算。

【写作范例】你长大了想做什么?你如何去实现你的梦想或愿望。请你写一段文字来记述。

                                                                                         

                                                                                          

                                                                                          

                                                                                          

Key:

When I grow up, I want to do what I want to do. I’m going to move somewhere interesting. Paris sounds like a city that I could enjoy. I’m going to be a reporter for a fashion magazine. So how am I going to do that? I’m going to find a part-time job for a year or two and save some money. Then I’m going to be a student at an art school in Paris. And I’m going to study French at the same time. I’m going to work hard at my lessons and I think my wish will come true.

【写作范例】假如你是班长,在周三下午你班要到红星影院观看电影雷锋的故事,全体同学下午两点在学校门口集合,不必带椅子,看完电影后要进行讨论。请你就以上信息下一个口头通知。

                                                                                          

                                                                                         

                                                                                           

                                                                                          

Key:

Boys and girls,

May I have your attention, please? I have something to say to you. On Wednesday afternoon, our class will go to see a film in Red Star Cinema. The name of the movie is The Story of LeiFeng. Remember: We’ll meet at 2:00 p.m. at the school gate. You needn’t take chairs with you. We’ll talk about the film after seeing it. Don’t be late.

That’s all. Thank you.

if引导的条件状语从句,若主句为将来时或表示将来的动作,从句用一般现在时表示将来。

【写作范例】请以“What will happen if you don’t finish your homework?” 为话题,完成这个问题。

                                                                                         

                                                                                           

                                                                                          

Key:

  I think there will be some problems if I don’t finish I homework. First, I think the teacher will call my parents and ask them to the teachers’ office. If my parents know this, they’ll be mad at me. If they are angry, I think I won’t have a chance to play football with my friends. If I can’t go out, I think I will be crazy.

IV.现在进行时表示现在正在进行的动作或状态。主要用来描述人们现在的所见所闻。

【写作范例】请你根据你家庭成员晚饭后正在进行的活动场景,描写你的家人正在进行的活动。(或根据一幅图片描写图片上的人们正在做什么,如人们在公交车上、在公园里等。)

                                                                                         

                                                                                          

                                                                                          

                                                                                          

Key:

  Hithis is my family. It’s seven o’clock in the evening. Let’s see what we are doing after dinner. Oh, my grandpa and my father are playing chess. My grandma is watching TV. My mother is listening to the music. My sister is talking with her friend on the phone. What’s my brother doing? Oh, he’s reading in the room. I’m doing my homework. Everyone is busy.

V.现在完成时表示某个已经发生且对现在造成影响或结果的动作或表示过去某一时刻发生,且延续到现在的动作或状态。可用来表示某人、某地、某事过去与现在的对比类文章,如家乡巨变等话题。常用的句子:He has changed a lot since the activity began. /Great changes have taken place in our city in the past/ last thirty years.

【写作范例】从1978年到2008年,中国经过三十年的改革开放,发生了很多变化。请根据下列材料,以“Great changes in my hometown”为题目,描写一下家乡巨变。

过去

现在

旧房

高楼

河水肮脏

河水清澈

步行、骑自行车

乘公交车、小汽车

                                                                                            

                                                                                         

                                                                                          

                                                                                           

Key:

  Great changes in my hometown

In the past thirty years, great changes have taken place in my hometown. In the past, the houses in my hometown were very poor. The water in the rivers was very dirty. People used to walk or ride bicycles to go to work. But now, many people in our hometown have moved into tall buildingsthere are many tall buildings here and there. The rivers are clean and people can swim in them. People can take buses or drive their own cars to go to work.

【写作范例】你班以告别陋习,走向文明为主题进行了一次综合实践活动。通过活动,学生收获很大,尤其是李华同学进步最快。请根据表格内容写一篇关于李华的短文。(词数60个左右)

过去表现

现在表现

经常与别人吵架

与别人相处融洽

乱扔垃圾

爱护环境

沉溺于电脑游戏

积极参加各种活动

                                                                                                           

                                                                                                            

                                                                                                            

                                                                                                            

Key:

We are very glad that LiHua has made great progress. He used to quarrel with others, but now he can get on well with others. He used to litter things about, but now he can make a contribution to protecting the environment and don’t litter in public. He used to lose himself in the computer games, but now he can take an active part in activities. He has change a lot.

VI.过去进行时表示过去某一点或某一段时间正在进行的动作;过去完成时表示在过去某一时间之前已经完成的动作或状态;过去将来时表示在过去某个时间看来将要发生的动作或存在的状态。了解这三个时态的用法有助于正确区分与之相应的现在时态。过去完成时和过去将来时多应用于宾语从句。在写作中用到复合句时或直接阴引语与间接引语时,应特别注意。如:

We were having a meeting this time yesterday. (昨天这个时候我们正在开会。)

The teacher was talking to some parents when I saw her. (当我看到她时,老师正在和一些家长交谈。)

We had learned four English songs by the end of last year. (到去年末为止,我们已经学习了四首英语歌曲。)

The film had already begun when I got to the cinema. (当我到达电影院时,电影已经开始了。)

She said that she had not heard from him since he left Beijing.

(她说在他离开北京以来,她就没有收到他的来信。)

He said he would go to the cinema that evening. (他说那个晚上他要去看电影。)

Betty said she was going to visit her uncle the next Sunday.(贝蒂说下个周日她打算去看望她叔叔。)

【写作范例】下面是Joe对昨天晚上8点几个同学的活动情况的调查结果,请你根据结果写出一份报告来。要求使用正确的时态,字数在60字左右。

Name

Activity

Paul

watch TV

Linda

do the dishes

Judy

help her sister with math

Jeff

play chess with his father

                                                                                                 

                                                                                          

                                                                                           

                                                                                          

                                                                                           

Key:

What were my classmates doing at 8pm last night? I made a survey about that. At 8pm, Paul was watching TV, and Linda was doing the dishes. Judy was helping her sister with math. Jeff was playing chess with his father and he also won the match!

  总之,能够熟练运用时态进行写作表达,则为综合类写作打下了一个良好的基础。

 

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